Chapter 11: Dilemmas of Development


Beijing Consensus
This model is based on China's economic development and emphasizes the role of the state in global economic integration. This theory makes two claims. First, the world economy is turbulent and unpredictable. Second, developing countries can overcome economic turbulence and stabilize their development through systematic government controls on the pace of trade integration, capital inflows and outflows, the movement of labor within the country, and the external value of the national currency.


Your staff sends a memo to the Prime Minister detailing your decision, highlighting your desire to pursue a heavily-regulated state capitalist economy. The memo outlines your plans to maximize state intervention in your economy.

Developing countries face many challenges in the world economy because they lag behind developed countries. To try to overcome these development problems, many developing countries pursue market-controlling strategies to improve their international economic position. Fearful of the global economy, the Prime Minister suggests you pursue a market-controlling strategy, but is open to hearing your ideas. Which of these market strategies will you choose?

What do you do now?

Import-Substituting IndustrializationISI is a national development strategy that avoids industrialized international economic linkages in order to focus on domestic production. This approach uses high tariffs, subsidies, and other protectionist measures to forego imported goods and services in favor of developing 'national champion' firms. National champion firms are firms that the government believes could do the best job of producing the substitutable industrial goods.
International Commodity CartelKashmir would seek to partner with other states that have large mineral supplies to try to control the supply of the raw materials in world markets in order to drive up their price and maximize their revenues. The mineral supplies are not easily substitutable, but seven other states have large natural reserves, including China.
International Commodity AgreementKashmir would attempt to press mineral consuming states to set an acceptable, consistent price for the minerals. This route would not maximize prices and revenue, rather, it would establish consistent revenue that Kashmir can rely upon for development planning.
Export-Led GrowthELG is a market-accepting strategy that argues international economic linkages are good because the international economy provides important opportunities for development such as access to managerial expertise, labor, capital, and technology. This strategy entails switching preference for government credit and foreign currency from firms producing for local markets to firms producing for export markets.